Are you struggling to establish how to paraphrase essays and dissertations? Studies and ideas of other researchers are often used as guidance and can help you in writing dissertation or an essay. Content from previous research work can be used in your essay or dissertation either by quoting or by paraphrasing. If you use quotes, you need to copy them the way they are without making any changes. Whereas when you paraphrase you are presenting someone else’s ideas in your own words.
While using quotes you copy a part of a text which may be a single sentence or a small paragraph. Similarly, when you add definitions they have to be quoted and you cannot change definitions or laws. Using quotes few times is not a bad idea as long as they are being cited. However, using them frequently reduces the readability of your essay or thesis. Using quotes may give the reader an impression that you are lazy or do not understand the source well. So, use quotes only when required and essential.
Use Quotes to
Provide definition of a certain concept
Play role of evidence
Present a powerful sentence that might lose quality after paraphrasing
Paraphrasing is all about rewording ideas presented in the secondary data sources in your own words. This aids you in using existing theories and incorporating them your dissertation easily without being charged for committing plagiarism. However, when you paraphrase the data the idea presented in it still not your own therefore; it must be referenced to avoid plagiarism. Be careful while using secondary data:
Always use genuine data
The information used and paraphrased must add value to your research
Follow a reliable method of citation which must remain consistent throughout your research proposal or dissertation
Always form the list of reference at the end
There are different ways of paraphrasing being adopted these days. However, whichever method you opt for it normally involves the name of author or source and may be a page number if you have taken the information from a book or a document that includes page numbers. In case of journals you will have to include the volume number as well. Talking about Harvard referencing for instance for every source of information it has its own way which is different than the other. You need to go through the guidelines thoroughly to do it the right way.
A good practice while using secondary sources is to read the text from the chosen source such as books, journals or article and jot down the essential points in your own words for your research work. Take good care that the meaning or context remains unchanged. When you start writing later, you can expand these points by further elaborating them in your own words. However to write in your own words you must know the concept thoroughly. This helps in eliminating repetition of original ideas and gives you confidence that you have grabbed the concept nicely. We hope that you fully understand how to paraphrase essays and dissertations after reading this article.
Many students are unable to understand exactly how to write a quality essay. Writing essays is an interesting intellectual exercise. A good essay is precise and addresses the key points. Writing essays time and again brings with it challenges of improving it little more than the previous one. A good essay writer is the one who takes the essay to the next level and goes from great to brilliant.
Essay writing service in the UK assists the writers to present their ideas in a more useful way. Good essay requires foresight, strategy, discipline, knowledge and research. Repetition of ideas and concepts makes the essay less effective and boring. It must be ensured that the topic under discussion is clear and the reader’s interest grows as they read on. A good essay clearly outlines the structure of the essay. Your goal must be clear and should convey the information in the right way making the essay more readable by presenting accurate information.
Keys points that can bring out the best possible essay writing
Devise an effective plan or strategy as to how the topic can be made more attractive
Presenting relevant research and knowledge of the topic
Proof reading is vital as it helps in eliminating grammatical and vocabulary mistakes overall improving the structure of the essay
A complete essay comprises of three main parts; introduction, body and conclusion.
Free-writing helps saving a lot of time. It is all about jotting your ideas and then tailoring them properly. It gives some shape to the essay. Once a structure is there the rst can be built on it.
Equally important is the proof reading of the essay which may be done after completing a section or at the end.
Last but not the least the introduction, body and conclusion must be linking properly.
Organizing the ideas and thoughts before writing an essay is vital to get the best possible outcome. Following techniques can be used to produce a good essay
read samples to get ideas and better understanding of how essays can be written more effectively.
An ideal introduction is the one which grabs reader’s attentions and makes them read on. It gives the reader the first impression. A little effort in preparing a powerful introduction can be very rewarding. Relevant quotations make the reading more interesting. Like the Shakespeare said “ the pen is mightier than the sword” although the pen alone is not enough to make the essay effective it is basically the writer’s knowledge and ability to put his thoughts and ideas into right words effectively without changing the context.
What comes after the Introductory paragraphs forms the body of an essay. A well written body spells out in detail the examples that support the whole argument of the essay. It should be relevant and strong enough to justify the goal of the essay. The body is the central part of the essay and hence the most important area that needs good expression of ideas and concepts.
The conclusion of the essay summarizes the essay. The conclusion must coincide with the introduction and must main point must be highlighted here. It is a proof that goals and argument presented in the introductory paragraph has been met successfully. Depending on the topic of the essay the conclusion varies. At times it includes suggestions for future or may present a model to improve an existing situation.
A dissertation proposal is perhaps the most important stage of the dissertation writing process. Dissertation research proposal provide students with the opportunity to get their supervisors to agree to a certain plan of action. Studies have revealed that a research proposal either makes or breaks the success of your dissertation project. Your research proposal tells the audience of the research plan you intend to follow before actually starting the research. Some instructions on how to write a great dissertation proposal are listed below in this article.
Before doing anything else you will need to familiar yourself with the topic of the research. It is imperative that your chosen dissertation topic matches your research interests. You will be able to improve your productivity substantially by selecting a topic that is intriguing and professionally rewarding to you. It is important for you to understand the meaning of the research question. “Why you selected this topic? What contributions you will make in your chosen area of study and how your research will help others in the future” are some of the questions that you should be able to answer before starting the research process.
Write draft plan of research on a word document. Doing some initial research will help you to find articles, journals, text books, and government reports that are relevant to your chosen topic. Read the academic sources to extract information regarding the background of the topic.
Write the Introduction section and include the background information under this chapter too. An introduction for a research proposal generally includes the aim and objectives and then set up the question for the topic. It is pivotal that you write about the problems and issues the research will take into consideration. Provide hypothesis if there is one. Try and set up the boundaries of the research under this chapter.
Give credit in a literature review.The purpose of this chapter of the proposal to show the readers exactly which academic sources were behind the information presented on the subject.
Provide a detailed explanation of what methods of research you will employ to collect the required data (primary or secondary). Primary research explanation usually involves description of the data to be collected from surveys and interview questions. Do not forget to discuss the statistical procedures to be employed. Since the results of the study are still not known, it might be a good idea to write the hypothesis of results and include some analysis that will be eventually used in the results of dissertation.
Develop a schedule of research activities. You can create a Gantt Chart or use any other similar type of project scheduling tool to inform your supervisor of the time needed to complete each research activity. The aim here is to show to the audience how you will be able to finish you’re the dissertation project before the due deadline.
Tips and Techniques
It is recommended to familiarise yourself with the requirements of dissertation research proposal by looking at a research proposal example. Here is an example of a great dissertation proposal sample.
If you are struggling with your research proposal then considering obtaining help from a professional research proposal service in UK.
If you are pursuing higher education course then you are sure to be asked to complete a literature review assignment. I have been associated with the academic writing industry for the last 10 years, and I can tell you that Literature Reviews are the most fun type of coursework assignments you will come across during your undergraduate, graduate or PhD degree course. However, the task of writing a great literature review can become a very challenging one for you if you have not been able to develop an interest in the area of research.
Essentially, a literature review assignment provides you with the opportunity to explore a topic in detail. You will be required to search for published literature on any given topic. Articles, journals, papers, text books and dissertation papers completed and published by other scholars and researchers on the topic in the past can prove to be a good starting point for you. A literature review writing task can be separate assignment task or a part of the dissertation papers, essay or research report. In any case, the method of carrying our review of literature will remain the same. The aim and objectives of your assignment will be force that will eventually guide you in the right direction in terms of literature review.
With literature review assignment, you cannot only enhance your topic on a given topic but also get the opportunity to present your researching and evaluation skills. As a literature review writer you will be evaluated based on your ability to seek, find and gather the required information in the forms of books, articles and journals. Secondly, you will be expected to apply principles of analysis to identify relevant and unbiased papers.
Some Important Features of a Literature Review
At the end of the review you will be expected to formulate questions that would others researchers could try and find answers to
Identify areas of controversy in the existing literature
Explaining to your readers the major findings so they know exactly what is and is not known
Your research should revolve around the research question you were asked to address
Some Tips and Techniques
Before doing anything else you should be able to clearly understand what your problem or research question is.
Find out what type of literature review you are conducting. Some common types of literature reviews include quantitative, policy, methodology, theoretical and qualitative.
What is the scope of your literature reviewing assignment? Know what type of publications you are expected to use as reference sources
You should complete the data collection process at the earliest. To start with you can look for information in your university/college library or on the internet.
So you have been handed the task to write your undergraduate or postgraduate dissertation but are unsure about how to tackle it? Dissertation writing process is full of surprises and as such it requires students to put in several 100 hours of study to achieve a high academic grade. Are you struggling with your dissertation? If Yes, then trust me you are not the only one to have got stuck with it. As you initiate work on your dissertation, pieces of the puzzle will start to fall in place and your path ahead will become clearer. So do not get frustrated with your shortcomings and meet the challenges head on.
P.S: It is possible for you to improve your dissertation writing skills and consequent academic grade by following some simple tips and techniques as discussed below in this article.
It is vitally important to start your research work in a timely manner. Before doing anything else you will be required to choose an appropriate dissertation topic. There are many online academic sources that you can use to pick an interesting topic. Research Prospect Ltd provides hundreds of possible research topics in every academic discipline. Their writers can also do some initial research to suggest latest topics for you to choose from. Select a topic that is not only interesting but also with significant amount of literature available on it. Moreover, make sure that you are passionate about the research topic because it is likely that you will be spending hours thinking, writing and talking about.
While you should try and take ownership of what you can control, it is important not be impatient when things do not work out the way you hoped them to see. You need to be equally comfortable in the wait time. You will observe if you haven’t already than the dissertation writing process will be full of delays and waiting times because of your own unavailability and due to the time your supervisor takes to return feedback on your dissertation. Remember that it is humanly impossible to control such situations.
Get Help from Expert Academics
Your supervisor is surely your first line defense against your inabilities and shortcoming but that does not mean that you shouldn’t look for help from the best dissertation writing service in UK. If you find yourself with a part of your dissertation then it is recommended that you look for a reliable academic writing service before it’s too late. You may also choose to get your work polished by an editing service to improve the quality standard of your work from 2:2 to 2:1 or 1st class.
Learn to live with your limitations as a writer
If you are not an expert academic writer then you should not expect yourself to produce a top notch paper that will score a distinction. It is important for all of us to identify our limitations and then work our way around them. Romon B. Goings in his article at Inside Highered claimed that “Gaining this understanding was a major turning point in my development as a scholar. When I first began to conceptualize my dissertation, I was a little unsure of my ability to take on such a daunting task. As a result, I sometimes found it hard to write sentences because I was looking for the perfect one.”
Since the body comprises of 80 % of the paper it is essential that it covers all the supporting opinions in a rational and consistent way. The ultimate purpose of this section is to convince the reader that the main idea is correct and right, by backing it with relevant argumentations and evidences. The contents of the body are given below.
Contents of the body
Main ideas are a set of reasons that firmly support the proposition presented as thesis. They cover all the main aspects of the thesis and give the reader an idea that the topic has been thoroughly researched and looked into. However it is necessary for these arguments to be presented in a very organized manner, starting from the very basic concept and slowly built into a complex idea. If these arguments are not arranged in a systematic way then they may not sound convincing.
Supporting ideas are basically the supporting pillars of the main arguments. They consist of evidences that can strengthen the main ideas. The supporting ideas for one main idea are usually grouped together in a single or multiple paragraphs depending on the requirement however it is important that the consistency between the paragraphs is not compromised when the selection of transition words is done.
Evidences act as proofs and confirmation that the view point presented in thesis is right. These can be in form of other researches, reports or papers and therefore the main source of evidences is secondary data available on that particular thesis. However there is a proper manner of using these evidences. This manner is presented in the following steps. I was able to find some great report writing tips and advice on this page.
Topic: Connection between Ungolu Rainforest Destruction and Red tailed Swallow Extinction
The main idea in this case would be that the extinction of Red Tailed Swallow would adversely affect the Rainforest and would contribute to its destruction.
The supporting idea would be that as this bird is the only insectivorous bird in the region and plays a crucial role in keeping the population of Cockscrew Beetles under control, in its absence the population would grow and destroy the forest.
The evidence for this destruction is presented in an earlier research in which Cooper has stated that these beetles make holes in the tree barks and makes them hollow from inside and thus killing the tree within three weeks.
This example clearly shows the approach which should be taken in order to make the entire idea sound convincing. It is in form of a pyramid where the base consists of all the proofs that fortify the supporting ideas on the second level and these supporting ideas act pillars for the top level by providing reasoning for the main ideas.
Body is the central and most important part of a thesis. It presents the main findings and also provides supporting arguments along with evidences which further strengthen idea or the concept presented in the paper. Therefore in order to make the entire argument sound convincing the body should be well organized and systematically arranged. The evidences should be consistent with ideas and should be relevant.
An accomplished academic essay requires students to dig deep and pay attention to details rather than simply making miscellaneous observations on a research topic. It is absolutely critical to include strong and relevant arguments in your essay in order to address the research question. The primary aim is to add value to the existing literature and also prove a set of points through evidence, research, arguments and reasoning. Use of relevant and authentic reference resources within the text and in the list of references adds weight to the arguments.
Sometimes it may be difficult for students to establish the questions they need to seek answer to in their essay and this is where their ability to formulate the research problem can come handy. It can be helpful to start with thinking, reading, browsing and jotting a provisional hypothesis and thesis. According to writing guidelines provided by most UK universities, student should not prematurely commit to their first answer. It is rather recommended to test different arguments and theories. The ability to develop counter-arguments and qualify or revise the evidence and answers along the course of writing is the best possible strategy particularly for beginners.
Arguments can be presented in a range of ways. However, what will make your essay stand out is how you begin, develop and end your essay to present your arguments in a precise and clear manner. The flow of the essay should be assessed and revised before submission.
There are many ways of composing a great essay. Some useful tips to help you write a perfect essay are given below:
Successful writers love to write and therefore they tend to start writing relatively earlier, even if they are not even fully prepared and ready to write. Gifted writers use their writing as a means to discover and explore rather than using it simple to transcribe.
They do not write the entire essay from start to the end in one go. They take their time and write what comes to them naturally or whatever seems readiest to them.
It is important to keep the key objectives and purpose of the essay in mind even if you write freely. A recommended approach is to amend and improve as your proceed. It can be helpful to prepare the essay outline before starting to write about the technical issues.
Revise, Revise and Revise until your essay does not need any more redrafting and revision. Good writers attend to the whole essay and continue to draft until all pieces of the puzzle are solved. Subtracting, adding and editing different sections of the essay throughout the course of writing helps them to make sure that they stay on the right track. Good writers will also revise sentences once they have prepared a well-organized draft. This help them to make sure that their audience is able to interpret their arguments, statements and ideas, from sentence to sentence, and from paragraph to paragraph.
Engineering, science and technical reports/papers provide information to make well-informed decisions. However, they are slightly different to reports on social sciences subjects such as marketing, economics and business. An effective engineering or technical report should incorporate efficient use of concise, clear and plain language, accurate and reliable facts, clear aims and objectives, and the ability to present complete picture of the problem. Moreover, a well presented report should use a logical structure whilst providing background research and recommendations to solve the problem. Continue reading “Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students”
Have you ever wondered whether writing is an art or a craft? To many, writing can be considered as both the art and craft. You have to be really patient to become a good writer. It takes time, determination, lots of hard work, and experience to improve your writing skills. But why do most writing advices do not work for the writers? Experienced writers typically offer tips with those inexperienced eagerly hoping to slightly improve their writing and achieve a small but valuable upgrade. Are you interesting in enhancing your writing capabilities. Are you struggling to become better in writing? If that is the case then this article is aimed at you. Continue reading “Why Most Writing Advice Does Not Work”