Guidelines on How to Paraphrase Essays and Dissertations

Are you struggling to establish how to paraphrase essays and dissertations? Studies and ideas of other researchers are often used as guidance and can help you in writing dissertation or an essay. Content from previous research work can be used in your essay or dissertation either by quoting or by paraphrasing. If you use quotes, you need to copy them the way they are without making any changes. Whereas when you paraphrase you are presenting someone else’s ideas in your own words.

While using quotes you copy a part of a text which may be a single sentence or a small paragraph. Similarly, when you add definitions they have to be quoted and you cannot change definitions or laws. Using quotes few times is not a bad idea as long as they are being cited. However, using them frequently reduces the readability of your essay or thesis. Using quotes may give the reader an impression that you are lazy or do not understand the source well. So, use quotes only when required and essential.

Use Quotes to

  • Provide definition of a certain concept
  • Play role of evidence
  • Present a powerful sentence that might lose quality after paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is all about rewording ideas presented in the secondary data sources in your own words. This aids you in using existing theories and incorporating them your dissertation easily without being charged for committing plagiarism. However, when you paraphrase the data the idea presented in it still not your own therefore; it must be referenced to avoid plagiarism. Be careful while using secondary data:

  • Always use genuine data
  • The information used and paraphrased must add value to your research
  • Follow a reliable method of citation which must remain consistent throughout your research proposal or dissertation
  • Always form the list of reference at the end

There are different ways of paraphrasing being adopted these days. However, whichever method you opt for it normally involves the name of author or source and may be a page number if you have taken the information from a book or a document that includes page numbers. In case of journals you will have to include the volume number as well. Talking about Harvard referencing for instance for every source of information it has its own way which is different than the other. You need to go through the guidelines thoroughly to do it the right way.

Seek guidance for your supervisor or tutor regarding the citation pattern you should follow. You may seek guidance on how to paraphrase essays and dissertations from any reliable essay writing service in UK or dissertation writing service in UK.

A good practice while using secondary sources is to read the text from the chosen source such as books, journals or article and jot down the essential points in your own words for your research work. Take good care that the meaning or context remains unchanged. When you start writing later, you can expand these points by further elaborating them in your own words. However to write in your own words you must know the concept thoroughly. This helps in eliminating repetition of original ideas and gives you confidence that you have grabbed the concept nicely. We hope that you fully understand how to paraphrase essays and dissertations after reading this article.

HOW TO WRITE A QUALITY ESSAY

Many students are unable to understand exactly how to write a quality essay. Writing essays is an interesting intellectual exercise. A good essay is precise and addresses the key points. Writing essays time and again brings with it challenges of improving it little more than the previous one. A good essay writer is the one who takes the essay to the next level and goes from great to brilliant.

Essay writing service in the UK assists the writers to present their ideas in a more useful way. Good essay requires foresight, strategy, discipline, knowledge and research.  Repetition of ideas and concepts makes the essay less effective and boring.  It must be ensured that the topic under discussion is clear and the reader’s interest grows as they read on. A good essay clearly outlines the structure of the essay. Your goal must be clear and should convey the information in the right way making the essay more readable by presenting accurate information.

Keys points that can bring out the best possible essay writing

  • Devise an effective plan or strategy as to how the topic can be made more attractive
  • Presenting relevant research and knowledge of the topic
  • Proof reading is vital as it helps in eliminating grammatical and vocabulary mistakes overall improving the structure of the essay
  • A complete essay comprises of three main parts; introduction, body and conclusion.
  • Free-writing helps saving a lot of time. It is all about jotting your ideas and then tailoring them properly. It gives some shape to the essay. Once a structure is there the rst can be built on it.
  • Equally important is the proof reading of the essay which may be done after completing a section or at the end.
  • Last but not the least the introduction, body and conclusion must be linking properly.

Organizing the ideas and thoughts before writing an essay is vital to get the best possible outcome. Following techniques can be used to produce a good essay

  • outlining
  • brainstorming
  • free writing
  • read samples to get ideas and better understanding of how essays can be written more effectively.

An ideal introduction is the one which grabs reader’s attentions and makes them read on. It gives the reader the first impression.  A little effort in preparing a powerful introduction can be very rewarding. Relevant quotations make the reading more interesting. Like the Shakespeare said “ the pen is mightier than the sword” although the pen alone is not enough to make the essay effective it is basically the writer’s knowledge and ability to put his thoughts and ideas into right words effectively without changing the context.

What comes after the Introductory paragraphs forms the body of an essay. A well written body spells out in detail the examples that support the whole argument of the essay. It should be relevant and strong enough to justify the goal of the essay. The body is the central part of the essay and hence the most important area that needs good expression of ideas and concepts.

The conclusion of the essay summarizes the essay. The conclusion must coincide with the introduction and must main point must be highlighted here. It is a proof that goals and argument presented in the introductory paragraph has been met successfully. Depending on the topic of the essay the conclusion varies. At times it includes suggestions for future or may present a model to improve an existing situation.

Guidelines on How to Write a Great Dissertation Proposal

ReA dissertation proposal is perhaps the most important stage of the dissertation writing process. Dissertation research proposal provide students with the opportunity to get their supervisors to agree to a certain plan of action. Studies have revealed that a research proposal either makes or breaks the success of your dissertation project. Your research proposal tells the audience of the research plan you intend to follow before actually starting the research. Some instructions on how to write a great dissertation proposal are listed below in this article.

  • Before doing anything else you will need to familiar yourself with the topic of the research. It is imperative that your chosen dissertation topic matches your research interests. You will be able to improve your productivity substantially by selecting a topic that is intriguing and professionally rewarding to you. It is important for you to understand the meaning of the research question. “Why you selected this topic? What contributions you will make in your chosen area of study and how your research will help others in the future” are some of the questions that you should be able to answer before starting the research process.
  • Write draft plan of research on a word document. Doing some initial research will help you to find articles, journals, text books, and government reports that are relevant to your chosen topic. Read the academic sources to extract information regarding the background of the topic.
  • Write the Introduction section and include the background information under this chapter too. An introduction for a research proposal generally includes the aim and objectives and then set up the question for the topic. It is pivotal that you write about the problems and issues the research will take into consideration. Provide hypothesis if there is one. Try and set up the boundaries of the research under this chapter.
  • Give credit in a literature review.The purpose of this chapter of the proposal to show the readers exactly which academic sources were behind the information presented on the subject.
  • Provide a detailed explanation of what methods of research you will employ to collect the required data (primary or secondary). Primary research explanation usually involves description of the data to be collected from surveys and interview questions. Do not forget to discuss the statistical procedures to be employed. Since the results of the study are still not known, it might be a good idea to write the hypothesis of results and include some analysis that will be eventually used in the results of dissertation.
  • Develop a schedule of research activities. You can create a Gantt Chart or use any other similar type of project scheduling tool to inform your supervisor of the time needed to complete each research activity. The aim here is to show to the audience how you will be able to finish you’re the dissertation project before the due deadline.

Tips and Techniques

It is recommended to familiarise yourself with the requirements of dissertation research proposal by looking at a research proposal example. Here is an example of a great dissertation proposal sample.

If you are struggling with your research proposal then considering obtaining help from a professional research proposal service in UK.

How to Write a Literature Review

Help with literature review writing

If you are pursuing higher education course then you are sure to be asked to complete a literature review assignment. I have been associated with the academic writing industry for the last 10 years, and I can tell you that Literature Reviews are the most fun type of coursework assignments you will come across during your undergraduate, graduate or PhD degree course. However, the task of writing a great literature review can become a very challenging one for you if you have not been able to develop an interest in the area of research.

Essentially, a literature review assignment provides you with the opportunity to explore a topic in detail. You will be required to search for published literature on any given topic. Articles, journals, papers, text books and dissertation papers completed and published by other scholars and researchers on the topic in the past can prove to be a good starting point for you. A literature review writing task can be separate assignment task or a part of the dissertation papers, essay or research report. In any case, the method of carrying our review of literature will remain the same. The aim and objectives of your assignment will be force that will eventually guide you in the right direction in terms of literature review.

Looking for a reliable literature review service?

With literature review assignment, you cannot only enhance your topic on a given topic but also get the opportunity to present your researching and evaluation skills. As a literature review writer you will be evaluated based on your ability to seek, find and gather the required information in the forms of books, articles and journals. Secondly, you will be expected to apply principles of analysis to identify relevant and unbiased papers.

Some Important Features of a Literature Review

  • At the end of the review you will be expected to formulate questions that would others researchers could try and find answers to
  • Identify areas of controversy in the existing literature
  • Explaining to your readers the major findings so they know exactly what is and is not known
  • Your research should revolve around the research question you were asked to address

Some Tips and Techniques

  • Before doing anything else you should be able to clearly understand what your problem or research question is.
  • Find out what type of literature review you are conducting. Some common types of literature reviews include quantitative, policy, methodology, theoretical and qualitative.
  • What is the scope of your literature reviewing assignment? Know what type of publications you are expected to use as reference sources
  • You should complete the data collection process at the earliest. To start with you can look for information in your university/college library or on the internet.
  • Critically analyse the literature

Seek help from a professional literature review writing service in UK if you are struggling with your literature review assignment. Need help with literature review? Need help writing a literature review? Get help from one of the best literature review writing services in the UK.

4 Tips to Help You Survive the Dissertation Writing Process

Dissertation Writing Help

So you have been handed the task to write your undergraduate or postgraduate dissertation but are unsure about how to tackle it? Dissertation writing process is full of surprises and as such it requires students to put in several 100 hours of study to achieve a high academic grade. Are you struggling with your dissertation? If Yes, then trust me you are not the only one to have got stuck with it. As you initiate work on your dissertation, pieces of the puzzle will start to fall in place and your path ahead will become clearer.  So do not get frustrated with your shortcomings and meet the challenges head on.

P.S: It is possible for you to improve your dissertation writing skills and consequent academic grade by following some simple tips and techniques as discussed below in this article.

Start Early

It is vitally important to start your research work in a timely manner. Before doing anything else you will be required to choose an appropriate dissertation topic. There are many online academic sources that you can use to pick an interesting topic. Research Prospect Ltd provides hundreds of possible research topics in every academic discipline. Their writers can also do some initial research to suggest latest topics for you to choose from. Select a topic that is not only interesting but also with significant amount of literature available on it. Moreover, make sure that you are passionate about the research topic because it is likely that you will be spending hours thinking, writing and talking about.

Be Patient

While you should try and take ownership of what you can control, it is important not be impatient when things do not work out the way you hoped them to see. You need to be equally comfortable in the wait time. You will observe if you haven’t already than the dissertation writing process will be full of delays and waiting times because of your own unavailability and due to the time your supervisor takes to return feedback on your dissertation. Remember that it is humanly impossible to control such situations.

Get Help from Expert Academics

Your supervisor is surely your first line defense against your inabilities and shortcoming but that does not mean that you shouldn’t look for help from the best dissertation writing service in UK. If you find yourself with a part of your dissertation then it is recommended that you look for a reliable academic writing service before it’s too late. You may also choose to get your work polished by an editing service to improve the quality standard of your work from 2:2 to 2:1 or 1st class.

Learn to live with your limitations as a writer

If you are not an expert academic writer then you should not expect yourself to produce a top notch paper that will score a distinction. It is important for all of us to identify our limitations and then work our way around them. Romon B. Goings in his article at Inside Highered claimed that “Gaining this understanding was a major turning point in my development as a scholar. When I first began to conceptualize my dissertation, I was a little unsure of my ability to take on such a daunting task. As a result, I sometimes found it hard to write sentences because I was looking for the perfect one.”

Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Processes

Dissertation Writing Help

Catalytic Reforming Processes

In 1940, The Universal Oil Products (UOP) introduced a catalytic reforming process by using catalyst which contain platinum for production of high octane naphtha from low octane naphtha, and the process became known as the Platforming according to Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973) and Dachos et al (1997). Furthermore, these authors point out that over the years other version of UOP original process have been developed by various oil companies but UOP process is still widely employed in the refineries. Over the years UOP process has been improved by introduction of bimetallic catalysts (Platinum and Rhenium on a silica or silica aluminium base) according to Mayers (2004). The greater activity and stability of this catalyst resulted in production of high octane naphtha on reduction of pressure. Bimetallic platinum-rhenium catalysts are known as R-56, which is a preferred catalyst to be used on naphtha platforming plants. The performance comparison of the UOP catalysts including R-56 is shown in Figure 2.1.

Sutton et al (1973) states that the UOP catalytic reforming technology has evolved from semi regenerative, fixed-bed processes to the more energy efficient, highly reliable, low operating cost, continuous catalyst reforming technology for naphtha reforming. Dachos et al (1997), described Stacked-type CCR process design, which is basically similar to UOP. The stack type CCR design can cope with longer regeneration time period associated with semi regenerative (SR) process. However, the short regeneration time period lead to a high rate of deactivation upon reducing the pressure which consequently give lower hydrogen (H2) to hydrocarbons (HCs) ratio as mentioned by Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973) and Dachos et al (1997) . The low H2 to HC ratio effectively leads to higher C5+ molecules and hydrogen according to Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973) and Dachos et al (1997).

The process selected in this project was very much influenced by above factors. The features of SR and CCR were incorporated in process system using same catalyst. Three catalyst beds were operated in series with same cycle length. Anotos et al (2004) has mentioned that if fourth reactor is added to the process then more catalyst would be required due to longer cycle length. However it is possible to improve the improvement CCR arrangement by addition of fourth reactor adjacent to other stacked reactors. And the system has a common catalyst bed that moves from top to bottom of reactor section.

According to Antos et al ( 2004 ), Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973), Dachos et al (1997) and Doolin et al ( 2001 ) UOP CCR Platforming Process considered to be the most successful reforming process available for the reforming of the naphtha because in the CCR Platforming unit, the regenerated catalyst is continuously replaced with spent catalyst of reactor.

UOP Process

Dachos et al (1997) described UOP platforming process which combines the concept of CCR system with SR system. This arrangement allows the fresh catalyst fed to the reactor while maintaining minimal recycle gas circulation rate and low pressure at the steady state operational conditions. In order to maintain a steady state reforming operation process uses stacked radial flow reactors and a CCR section at optimum process operating conditions according to Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973) and Dachos et al (1997).

A simplified schematic flow diagram of the CCR Platforming process is presented in Fig 2.2. The catalyst flows vertically down the stack due to gravity. The feed flows radially across the annular catalyst bed. The catalyst is continuously withdrawn from the last reactor and transferred to the regenerator. The catalyst which requires the regeneration flows down to the regenerator where the accumulated carbon is burned off from the catalyst surfaces. Regenerated catalyst with hydrogen is reintroduced into the top of stack reactor. By this way the quality of catalysts is kept as nearly fresh as possible. Due to separate reactor and regenerator sections allow each of them to operate at their own optimal conditions of operation.

Modelling and Designing of Catalytic Reforming by UOP (Importance)

The literature review suggests that The Universal Oil Products (UOP) has developed a number of Catalytic reforming Processes to upgrade or replace low octane naphtha to the high octane naphtha for the petrol blending.

SR units consist of three or four reactors generally loaded with bifunctional catalyst and operating in the temperature range of 460 0C to 540 0C whereas pressure range of 7 to 40 bars with hydrogen H2 to hydrocarbons (HCs) ratio of 2 to 3. However, high H2/hydrocarbons ratios may minimize coke deposition over the catalyst. The coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces decreases naphtha reforming activity and shortens the run length depending on operational severity. The reformer can be optimized for product yield, product quality and the catalyst cycle life time by changing the reactor inlet temperature. The values of reactor inlet temperatures are known from the reactor temperature profile.

Sowel (1998), points out that mathematical model sometimes do not match the plant which one is trying to simulate for optimum operational conditions. However, understanding the reasons can assist one in using the model to maximum the capabilities of the plant. The reasons why simulations do not match the plant characteristics fall into three main categories according to Sowel (1998):

*          simulation effects or inherent errors

*          sampling and analysis effects or measurement errors

*          model misapplication effects

Sowel (1998)  suggests that a model must predict behaviour not only within the reactor but in the auxiliary areas of the unit as well. It should also consider the complex nature of the process and the reaction that takes place during the process of reforming. According to Mayers (2004) UOP provides a detailed outline of the steps in catalytic reforming modelling, including the definition of the modeling objective, process identification, model selection, data collection and validation, and, finally, model calibration and verification. Beside that the Modelling of UOP process provides additional operational rules. The UOP model also allows to simulates how feed composition and operating conditions affect product compositions and yields.

Meyers (2004) suggested that most important part of a plant design concepts are as follow:

Feed Should Have

  • Less Alkenes (olefins) because they are prone to coking of reactors.
  • More Cycloalkanes (Naphthenes) because they are good for increasing the naphtha octane number.
  • Less Alkanes (paraffinic) because they yield lower octane number naphtha.
  • High hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio because this results a decrease in coking severity.
  • No nitrogen because nitrogen would produce ammonia and which will subsequently convert to ammonium chloride. This may decrease the chloride level in the reactor and cause scaling or physical deposits to accumulate.
  • About 20 parts per million (ppm) of water, which is required for the acid in the reactor to become active in ionizing. Acids are not effective in ionizing without the presence of

some form of ion transfer (i.e. water or water vapour).

Catalyst Activity

The catalyst activity is the most important consideration in naphtha reforming operations. If the catalyst activity is high say 1.0 for brand new or freshly generated catalyst, the time required for the conversion is significantly small, therefore, conversion of naphthenes to aromatics is very quick with lesser amount of catalyst or segment of reactor required. If the activity of the catalyst is low, there would be a lower conversion of naphthenes to aromatics. 

Reactor Pressure

The yield of reformer is directly linked with Pressure effect, temperature and Catalyst stability. However, there is no theoretical limitations for reactor pressure, although practical operating constraints have led to a historical range of operating pressures from 345 to 4830 kPa (50 to 700 psig) according to Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973), Dachos et al (1997) and Doolin et al (2001). By decreasing the reactor pressure  hydrogen production increases along with octane number naphtha (reformate) yield. However, at low pressures coke builds up quickly on the Platforming catalyst at reaction conditions. The high coking of catalyst associated with lower operating pressures require continuous catalyst regeneration.

Reactor Temperature

Temperature of the catalyst beds give the primary control of Product quality in the Platforming process. There are two ways to calculate the reactor temperature. First way is (WAIT) means Weighted Average Inlet Temperature, which can be obtained by summing the product of fraction of catalyst in each reactor. The result then multiplied with inlet temperature. Second way s (WABT) means Weighted Average Bed Temperature, which can be obtained by summing the product of each reactor, then result multiplied with average of its outlet and inlet temperature. Generally, it is referred to have WAIT calculations for temperature. For SR Platforming, WAIT ranges from 4900C to 5250C whereas for CCR Platforming, it is ranges from 5250C to 5400C.

Space LHSV

For lean naphtha [i.e. high Alkanes (paraffin) content] requires the feed to be operated at a higher LHSV. Otherwise Cycloalkanes (naphthenes) would convert rapidly, whereas the  Alkanes (paraffins) could crack if there residence in the reactor is prolonged. Furthermore, the temperature drop would be lower and the furnace firing requirements would not be that efficient. The yield is related to the residence of the feed. This important aspect made us adopt changes for the simulator.

Catalyst

The role of catalyst is to decrease the activation energy required for a particular reaction.     The kinetics are usually similar but the temperature requirements, physical requirements (attrition, surface etc), and selectivity are used in determination of catalyst selection. In naphtha platforming processes catalyst mostly contains platinum or rhenium on a silica-aluminium base or some contain both platinum and rhenium as stated by to Antos et al (2004)  , Mayers (2004), Sutton et al (1973), Dachos et al (1997) and Doolin et al (2001).

Rate Equations

The rate equations for platforming reactions are as follow:

  • Arene Formation:

                  r1 = ηkp1(PE –PAPH3 /Kp1)

Kp1 = 9.87 exp (23.21-34750/1.8T)

  • Alkane Formation:

r2 = ηkp2(PEPH –Pp/Kp2)

kp2   = 9.87 exp (35.98- 59600/1.8T)

  • Hydrocracking of Alkane:

r3 = ηkp3 Pp/P

kp3   = exp (42.97- 62300/1.8T)

  • Hydrocracking of Alkane:

r4 = ηkp4 PE/P

kp4   = exp (42.97- 62300/1.8T)

Here subscripts A, N, P and H means  aromatics, naphthenes (cycloalkanes), paraffins (alkanes) and hydrogen respectively. P represents system pressure and p represents the partial pressure of the components. T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin.

The physical model of catalytic reforming radial flow is shown in Figure 2.3. Ro and Ri represent the outer and inner radii of catalyst bed. For an element dR on bed at (R, R+dR), the material stream for inlet is Ni and temperature T. then outlet stream is N+dNi and temperature T + dt. From the mass and enthalpy balance five different differential equations are derived which is described by Smith (1959) as:-

dNA / dR  = 2  x  π  x  R  x  L  x ρC  x  (r1)

dNN / dR  = 2  x  π  x  R  x  L  x ρC  x  (-r1 – r2 – r4)

dN/ dR  = 2  x  π  x  R  x  L  x ρC  x  ( r2 – r3)

dNH   / dR  = 2  x  π  x  R  x  L  x ρC  x  [3 r1– r2-(n-3)/3 x r3 – (n/3) x r4 ]

dNT    / dR  = (2  x  π  x  R  x  L  x ρC) / Ʃ C pi Fi  x  -[(3 r1ΔH1  +  r2 ΔH2  +(n-3)/3 x  ΔH3  +(n/3) x ΔH4 ]

It is required to calculate first the rate by calculating partial pressure assuming ideal gas given to the system pressure and then calculate the rates at a particular temperature.

References

Dachos ,N., Kelly,A., Felch, D.,Reis,E. (1997) UOP platforming process.  Handbook of       Petroleum Refining Processes; Meyers, (R. Ed)., McGraw-Hill: New York, 2nd ed.    . Section 4.3.

Doolin, P.K., Zalewski, D.J. , Oyekan, S.O. (2001) Meeting the challenges of cleaner fuels, World Refining; Chemical Week Associates Production; pp.12

Smith, R.B. (1959) Kinetic analysis of naphtha reforming with platinum catalyst. Chem Eng Progr; 55(6):76–80.

Sutton, E.A.,Greenwood, A.R., Adams, F.H. (1973) A new processing concept for    continuous Platforming. Oil Gas J. 71 (20), pp 136.

 

Copyright of this article belongs to Research Prospect Ltd, UK’s leading dissertation writing service. It has been published on www.academiaservice.com after obtaining their approval.

Problems facing International Students in the UK

Studying abroad may not be a pleasant experience for everyone. If you are an international student pursuing higher education in the UK then you will know for sure that there are a lot of potential problems that you will have to tackle on your own. It is essential to identify those problems and find solutions to them so that you can feel confident, relaxed and happy throughout your stay in the UK. Some of the major problems facing international students in the UK are briefly discussed below, and recommendations are provided to address the concerns.

problems facing international students in UK

  • Homesickness

Homesickness is perhaps one of the most common problems faced by the international students. Your personal circumstances might become even more challenging if you are following a tight schedule that restricts you from visiting your country even during the holidays. Homesickness can force a student to fall into depression, stress and anxiety and have a negative impact on your academic and social life. Some students may opt for student counselling services to learn to control their emotions in challenging times.

  • Integration problems

International students are usually not familiar with the culture of United Kingdom. They might have lived a very different life in their own country, and therefore can expect to face problems when adjusting to a new lifestyle. It takes time to integrate into the new culture. Counselling can help students to adjust to the changed environment.

  • Language barrier

A lot of international students experience this problem. The inability to properly make use of language can restrict them from effectively communicating with others and achieving high academic grade. If you are struggling with academic writing tasks such as coursework, assignments, dissertations and reports then it is recommended to obtain help from a reputed student writing service. Moreover, many international students might lack the confidence to engage in conversations. Learning the British accent present another challenge for international students. It is recommended to engage in conversations with the locals and listen to live radio programmes to successfully learn the British accent.

  • Financial problems

Studying abroad can take a toll on your own or your parents’ financial situation. Financial burdens that international students have to bear can make it difficult for them to manage their finances and studies simultaneously. Therefore, it is vitally important that you take maximum advantage of scholarships, financial aids and on campus jobs to improve your financial situation without compromising your education.

  • Immigration issues

Students may suffer from strict immigration laws concerning student visa extension and post study stay in the UK. If there are dependents involved then additional issues such as the increased visa processing fee and increased fund requirement will also have to be considered. Therefore it is advisable to plan in advance to ensure that their immigration needs are met in a timely manner.

  • Accommodation

With their limited network and connections in the UK, international students may also struggle to find a good, secure and cheap accommodation. It is possible to find affordable houses and rooms on various student network websites such as Facebook and GreenTree.

Five Differences Between British and American Education Systems

Academic Writing HelpThe United Kingdom and the United States of America both out-stand rest of the world in terms of having a distinguished and an exceptional education system because every other top university is located either located in the USA or the UK. Here students get to explore an environment which is not only rich in terms of gaining knowledge theoretically but also provides opportunities to them to master the art of implementing their knowledge practically. There is no doubt in the fact that both the countries cater their students in an incredible way and facilitate them in terms of completing higher education. However, there are some notable differences between the two education systems concerning the quality of student life and the education system. Some of the key differences between the UK and US students are given below.

Time duration for Degree Completion

Time length required to complete the degree requirements is the most important difference between the UK and the US education systems. Following are some of the differences between the two regarding time period required for degree completion.

  • It takes one year more in the US than the UK.
  • In both cases the student can opt for PhD program after his or her undergraduate degree but in the UK it’s more common to start with PhD program after the completion of master’s degree.
  • Students under the UK education system have to write course works that are not much diversified and they stick on to the major areas that they have selected unlike the US students who apart from their major course work also get to explore other subjects of various fields.
  • For the US students it takes longer time to complete their degree requirements than the UK students because the US students have to cater for more subjects and activities.

Focus of the Education System

  • The UK education system encourage students to review their concerned fields which keeps their focus mainly on the aspects of their own area of study. It aims to make students excel in the area of study they have opted for whereas the students of the US, apart from their major subjects, study other subjects outside the scope of their majors and experience the breadth of various fields.

Student Homework and Grading Criteria

  • As the education system of the US gives more consideration to the breadth of different academic fields of study, students have to prove their capabilities by undertaking assignments, quizzes, presentations, and formal exam covering percentage of the overall course mark. The rest of the grading depends on other tasks of the semester.
  • Unlike the US education system, in the UK the students undergo one final exam mostly with some occasional assignments. At times no assignments are required to be completed rather the final grade is based on one final exam.

Cost and accommodation

Country

 

Education cost Type of accommodation
US Higher

Public institutions 2 years cost: Around $ 3000/year

Private institutions 4 years cost: $ 50,000/year

Provide students with residence halls to live. Students also share bedrooms with at least two students in each.
UK Moderate

Approximately $ 14,300/year

Usually it’s common to have single bedrooms. Bedroom sharing has also become common in the recent years.

Student traits

  • US students love having parties and drinking alcohol though the legal age for drinking is 21. In UK students can drink at the age of 18.
  • UK students are more self-disciplined than the US students.

 

Top 5 Dissertation Writing Mistakes Made by UK Students

Dissertation is the pinnacle or the culmination of your degree course. It provides you with the opportunity to test your own understanding of a subject by applying the knowledge which you have received over the entire course period. Dissertation can help you get your skills and abilities acknowledged by the potential employers, and therefore can play a valuable role in your professional career as well. However, there are some mistakes made that can prove disastrous and prevent your dissertation from being considered impeccable. The top five mistakes are given below.

Dissertation writing service

  • Plagiarism

Plagiarism is when you present another author’s work and findings as your own. As there is a lot of information available on the internet, some students find it easy to simply copy and paste that information in their thesis. There is nothing wrong with you wanting to quote some other research in your dissertation to strengthen your arguments but this should be done after changing it into your own words coupled with proper referencing. Plagiarism not only leaves a bad impression on the reader but also shows the lack of critical thinking abilities in the writer.

  • Lacking Structure

For your research to look impressive it is necessary for it to have a proper structure. Lack of structure can confuse the reader and also make your arguments sound not very convincing. Any dissertation should start with the very basic concept and then gradually move on to more complex stuff. Initially it should start with introduction then move on to related researches that are to be mentioned in the literature review. After that your own findings along with the supporting arguments should be presented and in the end a short but well written conclusion should be given.

  • Lack of supporting arguments

One of the biggest mistakes which you might make is not provide any supporting arguments to their findings and observations. Even though their stance can be totally correct but still in order to strengthen it, supporting arguments in form of similar researches and findings should be given. These arguments play a very convincing role when a reader is going through your dissertation.

  • Bad referencing or unauthentic sources

Sometimes students forget to use enough sources in their research or forget to mention them in their dissertation. References give the impression that the topic is well researched. Sadly students don’t realize their true worth and therefore suffer in the end. Another problem with referencing is when the material you have quoted comes from an unreliable and erratic source. Therefore it is recommended that students use enough, credible and properly formatted references when writing their dissertation.

  • No proofreading

Proofreading is done when you have finished writing your dissertation to check for any grammatical or formatting errors and missing arguments or information. This is very important but unfortunately is taken very seriously be many students. Therefore, it is highly recommended that before you submit your dissertation you go through it at least once or twice so that you can spot the mistakes on time and eliminate them from your dissertation.

Writing a dissertation is an easy task but writing an outstanding dissertation is a tough job to do, so it is recommended that students should seek expert advice and guidance before writing their dissertation.

Some Useful Tips to Write the Perfect Main Body of Your Academic Paper

Essay writing Service
Essay writing Service

Introduction

Since the body comprises of 80 % of the paper it is essential that it covers all the supporting opinions in a rational and consistent way. The ultimate purpose of this section is to convince the reader that the main idea is correct and right, by backing it with relevant argumentations and evidences.   The contents of the body are given below.

Contents of the body

Writing the Main Body of Your Academic Paper
Writing the Main Body of Your Academic Paper
  • Main Ideas:

Main ideas are a set of reasons that firmly support the proposition presented as thesis. They cover all the main aspects of the thesis and give the reader an idea that the topic has been thoroughly researched and looked into.  However it is necessary for these arguments to be presented in a very organized manner, starting from the very basic concept and slowly built into a complex idea. If these arguments are not arranged in a systematic way then they may not sound convincing.

  • Supporting Ideas:

Supporting ideas are basically the supporting pillars of the main arguments. They consist of evidences that can strengthen the main ideas. The supporting ideas for one main idea are usually grouped together in a single or multiple paragraphs depending on the requirement however it is important that the consistency between the paragraphs is not compromised when the selection of transition words is done.

  • Evidences:

Evidences act as proofs and confirmation that the view point presented in thesis is right. These can be in form of other researches, reports or papers and therefore the main source of evidences is secondary data available on that particular thesis. However there is a proper manner of using these evidences. This manner is presented in the following steps. I was able to find some great report writing tips and advice on this page.

Writing the Main Body of Your Paper

Example

Topic: Connection between Ungolu Rainforest Destruction and Red tailed Swallow Extinction

  • The main idea in this case would be that the extinction of Red Tailed Swallow would adversely affect the Rainforest and would contribute to its destruction.
  • The supporting idea would be that as this bird is the only insectivorous bird in the region and plays a crucial role in keeping the population of Cockscrew Beetles under control, in its absence the population would grow and destroy the forest.
  • The evidence for this destruction is presented in an earlier research in which Cooper has stated that these beetles make holes in the tree barks and makes them hollow from inside and thus killing the tree within three weeks.

This example clearly shows the approach which should be taken in order to make the entire idea sound convincing. It is in form of a pyramid where the base consists of all the proofs that fortify the supporting ideas on the second level and these supporting ideas act pillars for the top level by providing reasoning for the main ideas.

Conclusion

Body is the central and most important part of a thesis. It presents the main findings and also provides supporting arguments along with evidences which further strengthen idea or the concept presented in the paper. Therefore in order to make the entire argument sound convincing the body should be well organized and systematically arranged. The evidences should be consistent with ideas and should be relevant.